Topographic researches conducted in numerous Neolithic sites on the Adriatic coast are presented. Fontanelle in particular is noted which, in addition to the numerous remains of cereals contained in lumps of hut plaster, such as the complete imprint of an ear of Triticum dicoccum, preserves archaic impressed ceramics and a small-sized laminar lithic industry (perforated and geometric ). Among the caves frequented in the IV-III millennium, that of S. Biagio is of particular importance, of which the lithic industries and ceramics of Serra d'Alto facies are presented.
Finally, there are the graffitied ceramics with representations of prayers coming from the Grotta di Santa Candida near Francavilla Fontana.
The materials found in 1984 in this extensive karst cavity are exhibited, almost certainly a great place of worship in the Neolithic and Eneolithic periods. The top of the Pleistocene deposit (layer III), identified with the excavations of 1984, was used for the construction of a hearth surrounded by stones (layer II), with an adjoining area strewn with charred remains of Triticum dicoccum (6890 ± 70 BP - Gif 6724). Subsequently, a stone floor was created on which hearths and real holes containing charred cereals (6530 ± 70 BP - Gif 6722) were planted with evolved impressed ceramics, geometric graffiti with linear motifs, lithic industry and the remains of domestic animals. Among the materials there is a singular anthropomorphic representation with raised arms in the typical pose of the praying person.
Grotto of Santa Maria di Agnano
The last three rooms of the museum itinerary are entirely dedicated to the Grotto of Santa Maria di Agnano.
The first section is dedicated to the life of the cave in medieval and modern times, which collects archaeological evidence referring to the chapel of the Virgin Mary, with architectural fragments, frescoes and ceramics.
The second room is dedicated to the frequentation of the site in the Messapian age, when the cave and the surrounding terraces were probably the site of a sanctuary perhaps dedicated to the goddess Demeter. The fragments of local and imported pottery, the inscriptions in the Messapian language, the weapons and the terracotta belong to the period between the end of the V and the III-II century BC.
Finally, the prehistoric section presents the casts of the two Paleolithic burials, Ostuni 1 (the Woman of Ostuni, pregnant with fetus of 26.461-26115 BC) and Ostuni 2 (28.200-27.568 BC), in addition to the original remains of Ostuni 1 and equipment that accompanied the depositions.
The display cases collect a significant choice of Paleolithic and Neolithic materials.
The museum itinerary ends with a suggestive reconstructive diorama of the cave and the burial of the Woman of Ostuni.